This paper reflects on the effect that communal forestry ventures have on the social order of traditional indigenous peasant communities. From a material standpoint, the paper analyses the transformation of a family-oriented economy to a collectivist system that involves whole villages. In the realm of social reciprocity there’s a shift from a liberal mode to a corporate one. In the political order there’s an evolution towards a centralized self-government and a strong authority.This transformation
process can be exemplified by the amazing case of the San Pedro el Alto Zapotec community, located on the Sierra Sur of Oaxaca.